5 September 2014 Light-extraction enhancement for light-emitting diodes: a firefly-inspired structure refined by the genetic algorithm
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The efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LED) has increased significantly over the past few years, but the overall efficiency is still limited by total internal reflections due to the high dielectric-constant contrast between the incident and emergent media. The bioluminescent organ of fireflies gave incentive for light-extraction enhance-ment studies. A specific factory-roof shaped structure was shown, by means of light-propagation simulations and measurements, to enhance light extraction significantly. In order to achieve a similar effect for light-emitting diodes, the structure needs to be adapted to the specific set-up of LEDs. In this context simulations were carried out to determine the best geometrical parameters. In the present work, the search for a geometry that maximizes the extraction of light has been conducted by using a genetic algorithm. The idealized structure considered previously was generalized to a broader variety of shapes. The genetic algorithm makes it possible to search simultaneously over a wider range of parameters. It is also significantly less time-consuming than the previous approach that was based on a systematic scan on parameters. The results of the genetic algorithm show that (1) the calculations can be performed in a smaller amount of time and (2) the light extraction can be enhanced even more significantly by using optimal parameters determined by the genetic algorithm for the generalized structure. The combination of the genetic algorithm with the Rigorous Coupled Waves Analysis method constitutes a strong simulation tool, which provides us with adapted designs for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes.
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Annick Bay, Annick Bay, Alexandre Mayer, Alexandre Mayer, "Light-extraction enhancement for light-emitting diodes: a firefly-inspired structure refined by the genetic algorithm", Proc. SPIE 9187, The Nature of Light: Light in Nature V, 918706 (5 September 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2060797; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2060797

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