18 September 2014 Optical simulations of organic light-emitting diodes through a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods
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Abstract
Over the last two decades there has been extensive research done to improve the design of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) so as to enhance light extraction efficiency, improve beam shaping, and allow color tuning through techniques such as the use of patterned substrates, photonic crystal (PCs) gratings, back reflectors, surface texture, and phosphor down-conversion. Computational simulation has been an important tool for examining these increasingly complex designs. It has provided insights for improving OLED performance as a result of its ability to explore limitations, predict solutions, and demonstrate theoretical results. Depending upon the focus of the design and scale of the problem, simulations are carried out using rigorous electromagnetic (EM) wave optics based techniques, such as finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), or through ray optics based technique such as Monte Carlo ray-tracing. The former are typically used for modeling nanostructures on the OLED die, and the latter for modeling encapsulating structures, die placement, back-reflection, and phosphor down-conversion. This paper presents the use of a mixed-level simulation approach which unifies the use of EM wave-level and ray-level tools. This approach uses rigorous EM wave based tools to characterize the nanostructured die and generate both a Bidirectional Scattering Distribution function (BSDF) and a far-field angular intensity distribution. These characteristics are then incorporated into the ray-tracing simulator to obtain the overall performance. Such mixed-level approach allows for comprehensive modeling of the optical characteristic of OLEDs and can potentially lead to more accurate performance than that from individual modeling tools alone.
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Mayank Bahl, Gui-Rong Zhou, Evan Heller, William Cassarly, Mingming Jiang, Rob Scarmozzino, G. Groot Gregory, "Optical simulations of organic light-emitting diodes through a combination of rigorous electromagnetic solvers and Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods", Proc. SPIE 9190, Thirteenth International Conference on Solid State Lighting, 919009 (18 September 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2061089; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2061089
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