17 September 2014 X-ray optical systems: from metrology to Point Spread Function
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Abstract
One of the problems often encountered in X-ray mirror manufacturing is setting proper manufacturing tolerances to guarantee an angular resolution - often expressed in terms of Point Spread Function (PSF) - as needed by the specific science goal. To do this, we need an accurate metrological apparatus, covering a very broad range of spatial frequencies, and an affordable method to compute the PSF from the metrology dataset. In the past years, a wealth of methods, based on either geometrical optics or the perturbation theory in smooth surface limit, have been proposed to respectively treat long-period profile errors or high-frequency surface roughness. However, the separation between these spectral ranges is difficult do define exactly, and it is also unclear how to affordably combine the PSFs, computed with different methods in different spectral ranges, into a PSF expectation at a given X-ray energy. For this reason, we have proposed a method entirely based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle to compute the diffracted field of real Wolter-I optics, including measured defects over a wide range of spatial frequencies. Owing to the shallow angles at play, the computation can be simplified limiting the computation to the longitudinal profiles, neglecting completely the effect of roundness errors. Other authors had already proposed similar approaches in the past, but only in far-field approximation, therefore they could not be applied to the case of Wolter-I optics, in which two reflections occur in sequence within a short range. The method we suggest is versatile, as it can be applied to multiple reflection systems, at any X-ray energy, and regardless of the nominal shape of the mirrors in the optical system. The method has been implemented in the WISE code, successfully used to explain the measured PSFs of multilayer-coated optics for astronomic use, and of a K-B optical system in use at the FERMI free electron laser.
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Daniele Spiga, Daniele Spiga, Lorenzo Raimondi, Lorenzo Raimondi, } "X-ray optical systems: from metrology to Point Spread Function", Proc. SPIE 9209, Advances in Computational Methods for X-Ray Optics III, 92090E (17 September 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2061657; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2061657
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