11 September 2014 A study of EM failure in a micro-scale Pb-free solder joint using a custom lab-scale x-ray computed tomography system
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Abstract
The three-dimensional (3D) microstuructural evolution in a Pb-free solder system undergoing accelerated electromigration (EM) testing is characterized using a custom, lab-scale, cone-beam, micro x-ray computed tomography (μXCT) instrument. A micro-scale Sn-0.7Cu butt -joint was subjected to a current density of 104A/cm2 at 100°C. The experimentation was enabled by the design of a miniature fixture for in situ imaging under accelerating EM testing conditions. The fixture is friendly to surface imaging and μXCT scanning. The migrating species, copper and tin, are observed volumetrically through substrate dissolution, solder build-up, and the formation of reaction products in the solder joint by μXCT imaging. The migration of the copper substrate and the formation of copper-tin reaction products is quantified.
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J. C. E. Mertens, Nikhilesh Chawla, "A study of EM failure in a micro-scale Pb-free solder joint using a custom lab-scale x-ray computed tomography system", Proc. SPIE 9212, Developments in X-Ray Tomography IX, 92121E (11 September 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2062638; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2062638
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