2 October 2014 Evaluation of Terra and Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band response versus scan angle
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Terra and Aqua MODIS have operated near-continuously for over 14 and 12 years, respectively, and are key instruments for NASA’s Earth Observing System. Observations from the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), covering wavelengths from 3.5 to 14.4 μm with a nadir spatial resolution of 1 km are used to regularly generate a variety of atmosphere, ocean and land science products. The TEB detectors are calibrated using scan-by-scan observations of an on-board blackbody (BB). The current response versus scan angle (RVS) of the scan mirror was derived using a spacecraft deep-space pitch maneuver for Terra MODIS and characterized during prelaunch for Aqua MODIS. Earth view (EV) data over the complete range of angles of incidence (AOI) can be used to evaluate the on-orbit performance of the TEB RVS over the mission lifetime. Three approaches for tracking the TEB RVS on-orbit using EV observations are formulated. The first approach uses the multiple daily observations of Dome C BT at different AOI and their trend relative to coincident measurements from a ground temperature sensor. The second approach uses brightness temperatures (BT) retrieved over the cloud-free ocean to derive the trends at 13 AOI over the mission lifetime. The third approach tracks the dn response (normalized to the BB AOI) across the full swath width for Antarctic granules with the Dome C site at nadir. The viability of the three approaches is assessed and the long-term stability of the TEB RVS for both MODIS instruments is determined.
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B. N. Wenny, B. N. Wenny, A. Wu, A. Wu, S. Madhavan, S. Madhavan, X. Xiong, X. Xiong, } "Evaluation of Terra and Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band response versus scan angle", Proc. SPIE 9218, Earth Observing Systems XIX, 92181L (2 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2060728; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2060728

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