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8 October 2014 Calibration and application of a DSA Compact model for graphoepitaxy hole processes using contour-based metrology
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Significant interest from the integrated circuit (IC) industry has been placed on directed selfassembly (DSA) for sub 10nm nodes. DSA is being considered as a cost reduction complementary process to multiple patterning (MP) and an enabler of new technology nodes. However, to realize the potential of this technology, it is essential to look holistically at the necessary infrastructure from the point of view of materials, hardware, software, process integration and design methodologies which enable its deployment in large volume manufacturing. One key aspect in enabling DSA processes is the ability to mirror functionality of full chip mask synthesis and verification methods of existing tools used in production. One of those critical components is the ability to accurately model the placement of the target phases in the DSA process with a given mask shape, as well as determining the conditions at which unwanted phase transitions start to occur. Self-consistent field theory and Monte Carlo1 simulators have the capability to probe and explore the mechanisms driving the different phases of a diblock copolymer system. While such methods are appropriate to study the nature of the self-assembly process, they are computationally expensive and they cannot be used to perform mask synthesis operations nor full chip verification. The nature of a compact model is to make a series of approximations allowing a simpler description of the problem in a way that the phenomena of interest can be sufficiently captured even if it is at the expense of its generality. In this case we focus our effort in establishing the minimum set of conditions that a compact model for the manufacture of contact holes using a grapho epitaxy process for a PS-PMMA diblock copolymer system needs. The processes uses etched short trenches as guiding patterns in which the vertical DSA cylinders are formed. By focusing in the phase of interest (i.e., cylinder forming conditions), it is possible to reformulate the problem in a phenomenological formulation which accounts for the interaction among cylinders, the volume fraction of the respective co-polymers and the interaction with the confinement walls. As such, a 2D approximation to the 3D environment can be applied too simplify thhe representation of the DSA process. This enables thee use of a 2D contour for compact model training and verification. Further simplification is not recommended due to the nature of the grapho-epitaxy guiding patterns, where a simple CD measurement is not sufficient to capture the 2D environment of post routed contact patterns for sub 10nm nodes. In this paper, we will study the application of the DSA compact model to a via layer of imec’s 7nm technology node standard cells. ArF immersion lithography will be used to pattern the guides, and the layout will be DSA compliant to determine the mask complexity as well as the sensitivity of the solution to mask biases for the contact layer.
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Germain Fenger, Andrew Burbine, J. Andres Torres, Yuansheng Ma, Yuri Granik, Polina Krasnova, Geert Vandenberghe, Roel Gronheid, and Joost Bekaert "Calibration and application of a DSA Compact model for graphoepitaxy hole processes using contour-based metrology", Proc. SPIE 9235, Photomask Technology 2014, 92351X (8 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2069188;

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