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7 October 2014 Monolithic diffraction grating elements for remote sensing applications
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A diffraction grating is one of the key-components of spectral imaging spectrometers. Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced remote sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provide an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly boost spectral performance. ZEISS has developed advanced fabrication techniques to manufacture monolithic, high groove density gratings with low stray light, high diffraction efficiency and low polarization sensitivity characteristic. Gratings at ZEISS can be generated holographically in combination with ion beam plasma etching to enhance the grating profile or made by using gray-scale laser lithography technology. Holographic recording in combination with plasma etching enable the fabrication of various grating profiles to optimize efficiency including polarization behavior. Typical profile shapes are blazed type gratings, sinusoidal profiles and binary profiles allowing to optimize efficiency and polarization requirements exactly towards the required spectral range. Holographic gratings can be fabricated on plane and curved (convex, concave or free-form shape) substrates. As grating manufacturing techniques continue to cope with the challenges of enhanced remote sensing capabilities, ZEISS also can pattern large-area diffraction gratings with high resolution in the visible and shortwave infrared by using gray-scale lithography.
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Alexandre Gatto, Alexander Pesch, Lars H. Erdmann, Matthias Burkhardt, Alexander Kalies, Torsten Diehl, Peter Triebel, and Tobias Moeller "Monolithic diffraction grating elements for remote sensing applications", Proc. SPIE 9241, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XVIII, 92411J (7 October 2014);

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