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29 October 2014 Detecting changes on coastal primary sand dunes using multi-temporal Landsat imagery
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Due to both natural and anthropogenic causes the coastal primary sand dunes, keeps changing dynamically and continuously their shape, position and extend over time. In this paper we use a case study to show how we monitor the Portuguese coast, between the period 2000 to 2014, using free available multi-temporal Landsat imagery (ETM+ and OLI sensors). First, all the multispectral images are panshaperned to meet the 15 meters spatial resolution of the panchromatic images. Second, using the Modification of Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and kmeans clustering method we extract the raster shoreline for each image acquisition time. Third, each raster shoreline is smoothed and vectorized using a penalized least square method. Fourth, using an image composed by five synthetic bands and an unsupervised classification method we extract the primary sand dunes. Finally, the visual comparison of the thematic primary sand dunes maps shows that an effective monitoring system can be implemented easily using free available remote sensing imagery data and open source software (QGIS and Orfeo toolbox).
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Gil Gonçalves, Nuno Duro, Ercilia Sousa, Luís Pinto, and Isabel Figueiredo "Detecting changes on coastal primary sand dunes using multi-temporal Landsat imagery", Proc. SPIE 9244, Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XX, 924420 (29 October 2014);

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