23 October 2014 Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data
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Abstract
Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with millimeter accuracy.
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Carolina de Athayde Pinto, Waldir Renato Paradella, José Claudio Mura, Fabio Furian Gama, Athos Ribeiro dos Santos, Guilherme Gregório Silva, "Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data", Proc. SPIE 9245, Earth Resources and Environmental Remote Sensing/GIS Applications V, 92451K (23 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2067233; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2067233
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