In recent years, there is no doubt that global climate change (CC) has observable development impacts, which seriously threatens the ability of individuals and communities at all levels. During this process, the clear degradation in the situation of ecosystems has produced a global concern of the urgency to mitigate climate threats and related effects. Assessing the impacts and vulnerability of CC requires accurate, up-to-date and improved information. Coupled with the ready availability of historical remote sensing (RS) data, the reduction in data cost and increased resolution from satellite platforms, RS technology appears poised to make a great impact on planning agencies and providing better understanding the dynamics of the climate system, predict and mitigate the expected global changes and the effects on human civilization involved in mapping Land Use Land Cover (LU/LC) at a variety of spatial scales. This research was designed to study the impact of CC in conflict zones and potential flashpoints in Sudan namely Nuba Mountains, where the community in this area living in fragile and unstable conditions, which making them more vulnerable to the risk of violent conflict and CC effects. And to determine the factors that exacerbate vulnerability in the study area as well as to map and assess the LU/LC change during the period 1984 to 2011 covered the years (1999, 2002 and 2009). Multispectral satellite data (i.e. LANDSAT TM and TERRA ASTER) were used. Change detection techniques were applied to analyze the rate of changes, causal factors as well as the drivers of changes. Recent study showed the importance of spatial variables in tackling CC which promoted the use of maps made within a RS. In addition to provide an input for climate models; and thus plan adaptation strategies.