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21 November 2014 Initiation efficiency and cytotoxicity of a series of water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone for two-photon polymerization
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The 3D fabrication of bio-compatible materials under an aqueous environment is a fundamental requirement for tissue engineering. In this work, a series of polyethylene glycol- (PEG-), carboxylate anionic group- or pyridyl cationic groupfunctionalized benzylidene cyclopentanone photo-initiators (B2, B3, X2, X3, Y1 and P1) were synthesized. Their water-solubility, photophysical properties and cytotoxicity were investigated. Using eosin as reference, their initiation efficiencies in water-soluble photoactive formulation (SR610 with 20% of DI water) excited by one- or two-photon were studied. The results showed that there were no significant differences on partial linear photophysical properties of these initiators, such as [see manuscript] and [see manuscript], but differences on their (see manuscript), Φ, and σmax are clear. In addition, their cytotoxicity is different. Two PEG-functionalized initiators (B3 and X3) with two PEG groups on one side of benzylidene cyclopentanone cores have obvious toxicity, while other four intiators are safety to HepG2 cells at the concentration of 20 μM. Moreover, the water-solubility of X2 and X3 (containing two longer PEG) were much better than those of other four initiators. Using these initiators, 3D micro-structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization of water-soluble acrylate all could be achieved. In addition, their threshold energies were all lower than 0.5 mW. However, the stiffness of 3D micro-structures was affected by the water-solubility of these photo-initiators. Those structures built by formulations containing X2 and X3 would collapse easily. Conversely, other structures could sustain very well. This work proves that B2,Y1,and P1 have extensive application prospects in 3D fabrication for tissue engineering.
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Xiaopu Wang, Yanyan Fang, Qianli Zou, Yuxia Zhao, and Feipeng Wu "Initiation efficiency and cytotoxicity of a series of water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone for two-photon polymerization", Proc. SPIE 9268, Optics in Health Care and Biomedical Optics VI, 926824 (21 November 2014);

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