24 October 2014 Electro-optical line cards with multimode polymer waveguides for chip-to-chip interconnects
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Abstract
In this paper, we report developments of electro-optical PCBs (EO-PCB) with low-loss (<0.05dB/cm) polymer waveguides. Our results shows successful fabrication of complex waveguide structures part of hybrid EO-PCBs utilizing production scale process on standard board panels. Test patterns include 90° bends of varying radii (40mm – 2mm), waveguide crossing with varied crossing angles (90°-20°), cascaded bends with varying radii, splitters and tapered waveguides. Full ranges of geometric configurations are required to meet practical optical routing functions and layouts. Moreover, we report results obtained to realize structures to integrate optical connectors with waveguides. Experimental results are shown for MT in-plane and 90° out-of-plane optical connectors realized with coupling loss < 2dB and < 2.5 dB, respectively. These connectors are crucial to realize efficient light coupling from/to TX/RX chip-to-waveguide and within waveguide-to-fiber connections in practical optical PCBs. Furthermore, we show results for fabricating electrical interconnect structures e.g. tracing layers, vias, plated vias top/bottom and through optical layers. Process compatibility with accepted practices and production scale up for high volumes are key concerns to meet the yield target and cost efficiency. Results include waveguide characterization, transmission loss, misalignment tolerance, and effect of lamination. Critical link metrics are reported.
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Long Xiu Zhu, Marika Immonen, Jinhua Wu, Hui Juan Yan, Ruizhi Shi, Peifeng Chen, Tarja Rapala-Virtanen, "Electro-optical line cards with multimode polymer waveguides for chip-to-chip interconnects", Proc. SPIE 9270, Optoelectronic Devices and Integration V, 92700C (24 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2071965; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2071965
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