The efficient particle measurement methods are very important for the assessment of ambient air quality. Compared with other methods, the light scattering method has the advantages of non-destructive and real time detection, and has been used in the detection and analysis of particle composition and concentration. Different from non-polarized light scattering detection, polarized light scattering is suitable for the measurement of fine particles, such as PM1 and PM2.5. In this paper, we establish a three-component model to describe three typical particle elements in atmospheric suspended matters, and also set several pollution state changes according to some reported real measured data. By our primary polarization simulation under weak scattering approximation, we analyze Mueller matrix elements fluctuation with the different changes of particle concentration and distribution, and then extract two characteristic elements to follow the status particle composition. The results imply the potential of the backscattered polarization characterization to distinguish and evaluate the parameter variation in an atmospheric particulate model, and also show the possible sensitivity higher than the non-polarization characteristic.