In this paper, the single photon detection principle of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) device is introduced. The main noise factors that infect the sensitivity of the electro-optical detection system are analyzed, including background light noise, detector dark noise, preamplifier noise and signal light noise etc. The Optical, electrical and thermodynamic methods are used to suppress the SiPM electro-optical detection system noise, which improved the response sensitivity of the detector. Using SiPM optoelectronic detector with a even high sensitivity, together with small field large aperture optical system, high cutoff narrow bandwidth filters, low-noise operational amplifier circuit, the modular design of functional circuit, semiconductor refrigeration technology, greatly improved the sensitivity of optical detection system, reduced system noise and achieved long-range detection of weak laser radiation signal. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed methods are reasonable and efficient.