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4 March 2015 Optical characteristics of prostate tissues and the key chromophores and fluorophores within tissues related to carcinogenesis
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Tissues are an impressive complex creation comprised of a vast of assortment of molecules, structures and functional units. Despite this overwhelming complexity, we may still discuss average optical properties as long as we realize the limitations involved. There are five independent macroscopic parameters that are believed to characterize light propagation in tissue: the index of refraction (n), the absorption coefficient (μa), the scattering coefficient (μs), the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's), and the scattering anisotropy (g). This paper summarizes the Optical characteristics of tissue of prostate tissues ex vivo and the key fluorophores related to carcinogenesis. The absorption coefficient (μa) describes the effectiveness of light absorbed by certain chromophore. The key spectra fingerprints of water were introduced to distinguish different water contents in normal and cancerous prostate tissues. Fluorescence occurs when a molecule, atom or nanostructure relaxes to its ground state after being electrically excited. There are three fluorescence parameters of interest we may concern in tissue optics: the fluorescence lifetime (τf), the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) and the fluorescence emission peak (λmax). The key wavelengths which can be used for cancer detection were reviewed. Scattering of light occurs in media which contains fluctuations in the refractive index n. Tissue ultrastructure extends from membranes to membrane aggregates to collagen fibers to nuclei to cells, which may be an alternative way to detect cancer in tissues.
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Kenneth J. Zhou and Jun Chen "Optical characteristics of prostate tissues and the key chromophores and fluorophores within tissues related to carcinogenesis", Proc. SPIE 9313, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XIII, 93131G (4 March 2015);

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