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11 March 2015 Real-time needle guidance with photoacoustic and laser-generated ultrasound probes
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Detection of tissue structures such as nerves and blood vessels is of critical importance during many needle-based minimally invasive procedures. For instance, unintentional injections into arteries can lead to strokes or cardiotoxicity during interventional pain management procedures that involve injections in the vicinity of nerves. Reliable detection with current external imaging systems remains elusive. Optical generation and reception of ultrasound allow for depth-resolved sensing and they can be performed with optical fibers that are positioned within needles used in clinical practice. The needle probe developed in this study comprised separate optical fibers for generating and receiving ultrasound. Photoacoustic generation of ultrasound was performed on the distal end face of an optical fiber by coating it with an optically absorbing material. Ultrasound reception was performed using a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity. The sensor data was displayed as an M-mode image with a real-time interface. Imaging was performed on a biological tissue phantom.
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Richard Colchester, Charles A. Mosse, Daniil I. Nikitichev, Edward Z. Zhang, Simeon West, Paul C. Beard, Ioannis Papakonstantinou, and Adrien E. Desjardins "Real-time needle guidance with photoacoustic and laser-generated ultrasound probes", Proc. SPIE 9323, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2015, 932321 (11 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2080772;

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