12 March 2015 Inhibition of bacterial growth by iron oxide nanoparticles with and without attached drug: Have we conquered the antibiotic resistance problem?
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Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the top three leading causative opportunistic human pathogens, possessing one of the largest bacterial genomes and an exceptionally large proportion of regulatory genes therein. It has been known for more than a decade that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome is responsible for the adaptability and resilience of the bacteria to include its ability to resist many disinfectants and antibiotics. We have investigated the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilms to iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) with and without attached drug (tobramycin). We also characterized the susceptibility of zero-valent iron NPs, which are known to inactivate microbes. The particles, having an average diameter of 16 nm were capped with natural alginate, thus doubling the hydrodynamic size. Nanoparticle-drug conjugates were produced via cross-linking drug and alginate functional groups. Drug conjugates were investigated in the interest of determining dosage, during these dosage-curve experiments, NPs unbound to drug were tested in cultures as a negative control. Surprisingly, we found that the iron oxide NPs inhibited bacterial growth, and thus, biofilm formation without the addition of antibiotic drug. The inhibitory dosages of iron oxide NPs were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations are presented. These findings suggest that NP-drug conjugates may overcome the antibiotic drug resistance common in P. aeruginosa infections.
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Leisha M. Armijo, Priyanka Jain, Angelina Malagodi, F. Zuly Fornelli, Allison Hayat, Antonio C. Rivera, Michael French, Hugh D. C. Smyth, Marek Osiński, "Inhibition of bacterial growth by iron oxide nanoparticles with and without attached drug: Have we conquered the antibiotic resistance problem?", Proc. SPIE 9338, Colloidal Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications X, 93381Q (12 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2085048; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2085048
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