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13 March 2015 Spectroscopic characterization of the binding mechanism of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein in human serum albumin
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Fluorescein (FL) and some of its precursors have proven to be effective fluorescent tracers in pharmaceutical and medical applications owing to their high quantum yield of fluorescence in physiological conditions and their high membrane permeability. In order to protect FL from metabolic effects during the process of its delivery, human serum albumin (HSA) has been used as a carrier because of its compatibility with the human body. In the present work, we used spectroscopic methods to characterize the binding mechanisms of FL and one of its derivatives, 5(6)- carboxyfluorescein (CFL), in the HSA protein. The absorbance change of the two ligands (FL and CFL) was quantified as a function of the HSA concentration and the results indicate a moderate binding strength for the two ligands inside HSA (1.00 ± 0.12 x 104 M-1). The quenching effect of FL(CFL) on the fluorescence intensity of W214 (the sole tryptophan in HSA) indicates that FL and CFL occupy Site I in the protein which is known to bind several hydrophobic drugs. By performing site-competitive experiments, the location of the ligands is determined to be similar to that of the anticoagulant drug warfarin. At higher ratios of [ligand]/[HSA], we observed an upward curvature in the Stern-Volmer plots which indicates that the ligands occupy more pockets in Site I, close to W214. Our results indicate that both ligands bind in HSA with a moderate strength that should not affect their release when used as fluorescent reporters. The chemical and physical identities of the two ligands are also preserved inside the HSA binding sites.
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Saba A. J. Sulaiman, H. Udani Kulathunga, and Osama K. Abou-Zied "Spectroscopic characterization of the binding mechanism of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein in human serum albumin", Proc. SPIE 9339, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications VII, 933908 (13 March 2015);

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