Due to a growing demand of cost-efficient lithium-ion batteries with an increased energy and power density as well as an increased life-time, the focus is set on intercalation cathode materials like LiFePO4. It has a high practical capacity, is environmentally friendly and has low material costs. However, its low electrical conductivity and low ionic diffusivity are major drawbacks for its use in electrochemical storage devices or electric vehicles. By adding conductive agents, the electrical conductivity can be enhanced. By increasing the surface of the cathode material which is in direct contact with the liquid electrolyte the lithium-ion diffusion kinetics can be improved. A new approach to increase the surface of the active material without changing the active particle packing density or the weight proportion of carbon black is the laser-assisted generation of 3D surface structures in electrode materials. In this work, ultrafast laser radiation was used to create a defined surface structure in LiFePO4 electrodes. It was shown that by using ultrashort laser pulses instead of nanosecond laser pulses, the ablation efficiency could be significantly increased. Furthermore, melting and debris formation were reduced. To investigate the diffusion kinetics, electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique were applied. It could be shown that due to a laser generated 3D structure, the lithium-ion diffusion kinetic, the capacity retention and cell life-time can be significantly improved.