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8 February 2015 Hydride vapour phase epitaxy assisted buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for sensing applications
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Abstract
Buried heterostructure (BH) lasers are routinely fabricated for telecom applications. Development of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for sensing applications has largely benefited from the technological achievements established for telecom lasers. However, new demands are to be met with when fabricating BH-QCLs. For example, hetero-cascade and multistack QCLs, with several different active regions stacked on top of each other, are used to obtain a broad composite gain or increased peak output power. Such structures have thick etch ridges which puts severe demand in carrying out regrowth of semi-insulating layer around very deeply etched (< 10 μm) ridges in short time to realize BH-QCL. For comparison, telecom laser ridges are normally only <5 μm deep. We demonstrate here that hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) is capable of meeting this new demand adequately through the fabrication of BH-QCLs in less than 45 minutes for burying ridges etched down to 10-15 μm deep. This has to be compared with the normally used regrowth time of several hours, e.g., in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. This includes also micro-stripe lasers resembling grating-like ridges for enhanced thermal dissipation in the lateral direction. In addition, we also demonstrate HVPE capability to realize buried heterostructure photonic crystal QCLs for the first time. These buried lasers offer flexibility in collecting light from the surface and relatively facile device characterization feasibility of QCLs in general; but the more important benefits of such lasers are enhanced light matter interaction leading to ultra-high cavity Q-factors, tight optical confinement, possibility to control the emitted mode pattern and beam shape and substantial reduction in laser threshold.
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S. Lourdudoss, W. Metaferia, C. Junesand, B. Manavaimaran, S. Ferré, Bouzid Simozrag, M. Carras, R. Peretti, V. Liverini, M. Beck, and J. Faist "Hydride vapour phase epitaxy assisted buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for sensing applications", Proc. SPIE 9370, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XII, 93700D (8 February 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2078763
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