9 March 2015 Athermal silicon optical interposers operating up to 125° C
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Abstract
We previously proposed a photonics-electronics convergence system to solve bandwidth bottlenecks among large scale integrations (LSIs) and demonstrated a high bandwidth density with silicon optical interposers at room temperature. For practical applications, interposers should be usable under high temperature conditions and rapid temperature changes so that they can cope with the heat generated by mounted LSIs. We designed and fabricated athermal silicon optical interposers integrated with temperature-insensitive components on a silicon substrate. An arrayed laser diode (LD) chip was flip-chip bonded to the substrate. Each LD had multiple quantum dot layers with a 1.3-µm lasing wavelength. The output power was higher than 10 mW per channel up to 100º C. Silicon optical modulator and germanium photo detector (PD) arrays were monolithically integrated on the substrate. The modulators were structured as symmetric Mach- Zehnder interferometers, which were inherently temperature insensitive. The phase shifters composed of p-i-n diodes were stable against temperature with constant bias currents. The PD photo current was also temperature insensitive and the photo-to-dark current ratio was higher than 30 dB up to 100º C. We achieved error-free data links at 20 Gbps and high bandwidth density of 19 Tbps/cm2 operating from 25 to 125º C with the interposers without adjusting of the LDs, modulators, or PDs. The interposers are tolerant of the heat generated by the mounted LSIs and usable over the extended industrial temperature range without complex monitoring or feedback controls. The bandwidth density is sufficient for the needs of the late 2010s.
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Yutaka Urino, Nobuaki Hatori, Kenji Mizutani, Tatsuya Usuki, Junichi Fujikata, Koji Yamada, Tsuyoshi Horikawa, Takahiro Nakamura, Yasuhiko Arakawa, "Athermal silicon optical interposers operating up to 125° C", Proc. SPIE 9390, Next-Generation Optical Networks for Data Centers and Short-Reach Links II, 93900H (9 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2084995; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2084995
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