13 March 2015 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process
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Abstract
It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.
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Susanne Klein, Michael P. Avery, Robert Richardson, Paul Bartlett, Regina Frei, Steven Simske, "3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process", Proc. SPIE 9398, Measuring, Modeling, and Reproducing Material Appearance 2015, 93980R (13 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2085129; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2085129
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