4 March 2015 Exposing photo manipulation from user-guided 3D lighting analysis
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We describe a photo forensic technique based on detecting inconsistencies in lighting. This technique explicitly measures the 3-D lighting properties for individual people, objects, or surfaces in a single image. We show that with minimal training, an analyst can accurately specify 3-D shape in a single image from which 3-D lighting can be automatically estimated. A perturbation analysis on the estimated lighting is performed to yield a probabilistic measure of the location of the illuminating light. Inconsistencies in lighting within an image evidence photo tampering.
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Tiago Carvalho, Tiago Carvalho, Hany Farid, Hany Farid, Eric R. Kee, Eric R. Kee, } "Exposing photo manipulation from user-guided 3D lighting analysis", Proc. SPIE 9409, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics 2015, 940902 (4 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2075544; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2075544

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