18 March 2015 Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration: development and application to tasked-based imaging with a robotic C-arm
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Abstract
Purpose: Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry.

Methods: Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting “self-calibration” was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction.

Results: The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard (“true”) calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the “self” and “true” calibration methods were on the order of 10-3 mm-1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm.

Conclusion: The proposed geometric “self” calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general noncircular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced “task-based” 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.
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S. Ouadah, J. W. Stayman, G. Gang, A. Uneri, T. Ehtiati, J. H. Siewerdsen, "Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration: development and application to tasked-based imaging with a robotic C-arm", Proc. SPIE 9415, Medical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 94151D (18 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2082538; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2082538
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