16 March 2015 Studying secondary electron behavior in EUV resists using experimentation and modeling
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EUV photons expose photoresists by complex interactions starting with photoionization that create primary electrons (~80 eV), followed by ionization steps that create secondary electrons (10-60 eV). Ultimately, these lower energy electrons interact with specific molecules in the resist that cause the chemical reactions which are responsible for changes in solubility. The mechanisms by which these electrons interact with resist components are key to optimizing the performance of EUV resists. An electron exposure chamber was built to probe the behavior of electrons within photoresists. Upon exposure and development of a photoresist to an electron gun, ellipsometry was used to identify the dependence of electron penetration depth and number of reactions on dose and energy. Additionally, our group has updated a robust software that uses first-principles based Monte Carlo model called “LESiS”, to track secondary electron production, penetration depth, and reaction mechanisms within materials-defined environments. LESiS was used to model the thickness loss experiments to validate its performance with respect to simulated electron penetration depths to inform future modeling work.
© (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Amrit Narasimhan, Amrit Narasimhan, Steven Grzeskowiak, Steven Grzeskowiak, Bharath Srivats, Bharath Srivats, Henry C. Herbol, Henry C. Herbol, Liam Wisehart, Liam Wisehart, Chris Kelly, Chris Kelly, William Earley, William Earley, Leonidas E. Ocola, Leonidas E. Ocola, Mark Neisser, Mark Neisser, Gregory Denbeaux, Gregory Denbeaux, Robert L. Brainard, Robert L. Brainard, "Studying secondary electron behavior in EUV resists using experimentation and modeling", Proc. SPIE 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI, 942208 (16 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2086596; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2086596

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