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18 March 2015 Investigating deprotection-induced shrinkage and retro-grade sidewalls in NTD resists
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Two aspects of NTD resists, deprotection-induced shrinkage, and retrograde sidewalls, are investigated through experimentation and simulation.

Simulation predicts that NTD resist profiles should often have retrograde sidewall angles due to the attenuation of light as it propagates down through the resist. Resist shrinkage induced from both the de-protection during PEB and from exposure to electrons during SEM can cause CD and sidewall changes. The interplay between the shrinkage and the retrograde sidewalls is discussed.

Deprotection-induced shrinkage is measured by AFM while SEM induced shrinkage is estimated from repeated SEM measurements. SEM images for various features are analyzed and compared to simulation.
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Thomas V. Pistor, Chenchen Wang, Yan Wang, Lei Yuan, Jongwook Kye, Yixu Wu, Sohan Mehta, and Paul Ackmann "Investigating deprotection-induced shrinkage and retro-grade sidewalls in NTD resists", Proc. SPIE 9426, Optical Microlithography XXVIII, 94260T (18 March 2015);

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