1 April 2015 Dynamic characterization of Galfenol
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Abstract
A novel and precise characterization of the constitutive behavior of solid and laminated research-grade, polycrystalline Galfenol (Fe81:6Ga18:4) under under quasi-static (1 Hz) and dynamic (4 to 1000 Hz) stress loadings was recently conducted by the authors. This paper summarizes the characterization by focusing on the experimental design and the dynamic sensing response of the solid Galfenol specimen. Mechanical loads are applied using a high frequency load frame. The dynamic stress amplitude for minor and major loops is 2.88 and 31.4 MPa, respectively. Dynamic minor and major loops are measured for the bias condition resulting in maximum, quasi-static sensitivity. Three key sources of error in the dynamic measurements are accounted for: (1) electromagnetic noise in strain signals due to Galfenol's magnetic response, (2) error in load signals due to the inertial force of fixturing, and (3) time delays imposed by conditioning electronics. For dynamic characterization, strain error is kept below 1.2 % of full scale by wiring two collocated gauges in series (noise cancellation) and through lead wire weaving. Inertial force error is kept below 0.41 % by measuring the dynamic force in the specimen using a nearly collocated piezoelectric load washer. The phase response of all conditioning electronics is explicitly measured and corrected for. In general, as frequency increases, the sensing response becomes more linear due to an increase in eddy currents. The location of positive and negative saturation is the same at all frequencies. As frequency increases above about 100 Hz, the elbow in the strain versus stress response disappears as the active (soft) regime stiffens toward the passive (hard) regime.
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Justin J. Scheidler, Vivake M. Asnani, Zhangxian Deng, Marcelo J. Dapino, "Dynamic characterization of Galfenol", Proc. SPIE 9432, Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Composites 2015, 94320J (1 April 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2085573; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2085573
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