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3 April 2015 Recovering bridge deflections from collocated acceleration and strain measurements
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In this research, an internal model based method is proposed to estimate the displacement profile of a bridge subjected to a moving traffic load using a combination of acceleration and strain measurements. The structural response is assumed to be within the linear range. The deflection profile is assumed to be dominated by the fundamental mode of the bridge, therefore only requiring knowledge of the first mode. This still holds true under a multiple vehicle loading situation as the high mode shapes don’t impact the over all response of the structure. Using the structural modal parameters and partial knowledge of the moving vehicle load, the internal models of the structure and the moving load can be respectively established, which can be used to form an autonomous state-space representation of the system. The structural displacements, velocities, and accelerations are the states of such a system, and it is fully observable when the measured output contains structural accelerations and strains. Reliable estimates of structural displacements are obtained using the standard Kalman filtering technique. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method has been demonstrated and evaluated via numerical simulation of a simply supported single span concrete bridge subjected to a moving traffic load.
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M. Bell, David T. Ma, and N. S. Xu "Recovering bridge deflections from collocated acceleration and strain measurements", Proc. SPIE 9435, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2015, 94350B (3 April 2015);

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