Recently, Peridynamic (PD) models of sand impact damage have been shown to produce the same phenomenological damage as is observed experimentally in zinc sulfide (ZnS). This paper discusses improvements in the PD impact simulation model which now allow it to simulate coated substrates and non-parallel impact events (where the flat impactor face is no longer parallel to the substrate but tilted by some small impact angle.) Two different substrates are considered, one with the properties of ZnS and another which is twice as strong and stiff as ZnS. Finally, the variation in damage as a function of impact angle is discussed. These modeling results demonstrate the versatility of the peridynamic model of sand impact damage and its potential for identifying trade space and providing design guidance during the development of more durable apertures.
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Shanna Tune, Robert Schultz, Ibrahim Guven, Brian J. Zelinski, "Peridynamic simulation of the effects of coatings, substrate properties, incident angle, and tilt on sand impact damage in transparent ceramic windows," Proc. SPIE 9453, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XIV, 94530P (28 May 2015);