14 May 2015 Extended-range electromagnetic induction concepts
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Abstract
Typically, electromagnetic sensors are applied using one of two modalities to detect buried or obscured targets: 1) lower frequency Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) sensors that enable detection of targets in the near-field; and 2) higher frequency wave propagation sensors, such as Forward Looking or Ground Penetrating Radar (FL/GPR) that enable detection of targets in the far-field. Each modality has advantages and limitations. EMI sensors enable deep penetration of overburden or structures that may obscure a target; however, sensitivity is typically limited to high conductivity targets (i.e., metals) due to the relatively low frequency of operation. Wave propagation sensors, such as GPR, enable detection of both conductive and non-conductive targets as a result of inherent dielectric contrast sensitivity; however, penetration into ground or structures is limited due to rapid attenuation of the propagating wave through lossy materials. In this paper, we present a concept for enhancing the target range capabilities of EMI sensors to extend sensitivity to lower conductivity targets. This concept incorporates an efficient transmitter driver design that extends the range of EMI operation into the High Frequency (HF) band while providing high power output. This ability to produce high frequency, high power output provides a sensor modality that bridges the gap between traditional EMI and wave propagating modalities. This High Frequency Transmitter (HFTX) concept could enable sensitivity to low conductivity targets (i.e., non-metals) while maintaining effective penetration through soil overburden or other materials that would typically impede GPR wave propagation.
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Jonathan S. Miller, Jonathan S. Miller, Chet Bassani, Chet Bassani, Gregory Schultz, Gregory Schultz, } "Extended-range electromagnetic induction concepts", Proc. SPIE 9454, Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XX, 94540C (14 May 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2177476; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2177476
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