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22 May 2015 Recognizing subsurface target responses in ground penetrating radar data using convolutional neural networks
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Improved performance in the discrimination of buried threats using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data has recently been achieved using features developed for applications in computer vision. These features, designed to characterize local shape information in images, have been utilized to recognize patches that contain a target signature in two-dimensional slices of GPR data. While these adapted features perform very well in this GPR application, they were not designed to specifically differentiate between target responses and background GPR data. One option for developing a feature specifically designed for target differentiation is to manually design a feature extractor based on the physics of GPR image formation. However, as seen in the historical progression of computer vision features, this is not a trivial task. Instead, this research evaluates the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) applied to two-dimensional GPR data. The benefit of using a CNN is that features extracted from the data are a learned parameter of the system. This has allowed CNN implementations to achieve state of the art performance across a variety of data types, including visual images, without the need for expert designed features. However, the implementation of a CNN must be done carefully for each application as network parameters can cause performance to vary widely. This paper presents results from using CNNs for object detection in GPR data and discusses proper parameter settings and other considerations.
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Rayn T. Sakaguchi, Kenneth D. Morton Jr., Leslie M. Collins, and Peter A. Torrione "Recognizing subsurface target responses in ground penetrating radar data using convolutional neural networks", Proc. SPIE 9454, Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XX, 94541A (22 May 2015);

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