21 May 2015 Signature simulation of mixed materials
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Abstract
Soil target signatures vary due to geometry, chemical composition, and scene radiometry. Although radiative transfer models and function-fit physical models may describe certain targets in limited depth, the ability to incorporate all three signature variables is difficult. This work describes a method to simulate the transient signatures of soil by first considering scene geometry synthetically created using 3D physics engines. Through the assignment of spectral data from the Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS), the synthetic scene is represented as a physical mixture of particles. Finally, first principles radiometry is modeled using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. With DIRSIG, radiometric and sensing conditions were systematically manipulated to produce and record goniometric signatures. The implementation of this virtual goniometer allows users to examine how a target bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) will change with geometry, composition, and illumination direction. By using 3D computer graphics models, this process does not require geometric assumptions that are native to many radiative transfer models. It delivers a discrete method to circumnavigate the significant cost of time and treasure associated with hardware-based goniometric data collections.
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Tyler D. Carson, Tyler D. Carson, Carl Salvaggio, Carl Salvaggio, } "Signature simulation of mixed materials", Proc. SPIE 9461, Radar Sensor Technology XIX; and Active and Passive Signatures VI, 94611J (21 May 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2176990; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2176990
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