13 May 2015 On-chip surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-linked immuno-sensor assay (SLISA) for rapid environmental-surveillance of chemical toxins
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The increasing threat of an intentional (attack) or accidental release of toxins, in particular chemical toxins, including chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has increased public fear. The major problem in such attacks/accidents is to detect toxins present in very low levels. Indeed, several detection techniques are currently being used for the same. However, none of them meet the most critical requirements of a RISE (Rapid, Inexpensive, Simple and Effective) detect-to-protect class of biosensors. To address this critical demand our group has developed a prototype lab-on-a-chip (LOC) using a colloidal silver-based, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-linked immuno-sensor assay (SLISA). The LOC-SLISA was tested for the measurement of RAD54, a stress-marker protein expressed by yeast in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a toxin in the EPA priority list of chemical toxins. We found SLISA has good correlation in accuracy with the traditional ELISA technique and outperforms the latter by being rapid and easy-to-use. SLISA is more sensitive, provides qualitative information on immuno-sensor’s chemical characterization and antigen-antibody binding, and allows direct detection with minimal or no chance of uncertainty, which is a stringent limitation of all label-based biosensor technologies including ELISA. For translational significance of our work, we correlated our results to U.S. EPA (environmental protection agency) defined risk exposure guideline levels of H2O2 to validate the commercial potential of our on-chip SLISA. The label-free, cell-based and RISE detection offered by SERS can allow development of biomedical and environmental sensor technology (BEST) needed for direct, rapid and continuous monitoring of human health and environment
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Vinay Bhardwaj, Vinay Bhardwaj, Supriya Srinivasan, Supriya Srinivasan, Anthony J. McGoron, Anthony J. McGoron, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-linked immuno-sensor assay (SLISA) for rapid environmental-surveillance of chemical toxins", Proc. SPIE 9486, Advanced Environmental, Chemical, and Biological Sensing Technologies XII, 948611 (13 May 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2182591; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2182591

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