20 May 2015 Computational intelligence from AI to BI to NI
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This paper gives highlights of the history of the neural network field, stressing the fundamental ideas which have been in play. Early neural network research was motivated mainly by the goals of artificial intelligence (AI) and of functional neuroscience (biological intelligence, BI), but the field almost died due to frustrations articulated in the famous book Perceptrons by Minsky and Papert. When I found a way to overcome the difficulties by 1974, the community mindset was very resistant to change; it was not until 1987/1988 that the field was reborn in a spectacular way, leading to the organized communities now in place. Even then, it took many more years to establish crossdisciplinary research in the types of mathematical neural networks needed to really understand the kind of intelligence we see in the brain, and to address the most demanding engineering applications. Only through a new (albeit short-lived) funding initiative, funding crossdisciplinary teams of systems engineers and neuroscientists, were we able to fund the critical empirical demonstrations which put our old basic principle of “deep learning” firmly on the map in computer science. Progress has rightly been inhibited at times by legitimate concerns about the “Terminator threat” and other possible abuses of technology. This year, at SPIE, in the quantum computing track, we outline the next stage ahead of us in breaking out of the box, again and again, and rising to fundamental challenges and opportunities still ahead of us.
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Paul J. Werbos, Paul J. Werbos, } "Computational intelligence from AI to BI to NI", Proc. SPIE 9496, Independent Component Analyses, Compressive Sampling, Large Data Analyses (LDA), Neural Networks, Biosystems, and Nanoengineering XIII, 94960R (20 May 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2191520; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2191520

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