In this paper, an automatic fractional coefficient setting method of fractional-order Darwinian particle swarm optimization (FODPSO) is proposed for hyperspectral image segmentation. The spectrum has been already taken into consideration by integrating various types of band selection algorithms, firstly. We provide a short overview of the hyperspectral image to select an appropriate set of bands by combining supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised band selection algorithms. Some approaches are not limited in regards to their spectral dimension, but are limited with respect to their spatial dimension owing to low spatial resolution. The addition of spatial information will be focused on improving the performance of hyperspectral image segmentation for later fusion or classification. Many researchers have advocated that a large fractional coefficient should be in the exploration state while a small fractional coefficient should be in the exploitation, which does not mean the coefficient purely decrease with time. Due to such reasons, we propose an adaptive FODPSO by setting the fractional coefficient adaptively for the application of final hyperspectral image segmentation. In fact, the paper introduces an evolutionary factor to automatically control the fractional coefficient by using a sigmoid function. Therefore, fractional coefficient with large value will benefit the global search in the exploration state. Conversely, when the fractional coefficient has a small value, the exploitation state is detected. Hence, it can avoid optimization process get trapped into the local optima. Ultimately, the experimental segmentation results prove the validity and efficiency of our proposed automatic fractional coefficient setting method of FODPSO compared with traditional PSO, DPSO and FODPSO.