1 May 2015 High resolution TE&TM near infrared compact spectrometer based on waveguide grating structures
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Abstract
Integrated optics spectrometers can be essentially classified into two main families: based on Fourier transform or dispersed modes. In the first case, an interferogram generated inside an optical waveguide is sampled using nanodetectors, these scatter light into the detector that is in contact with the waveguide. A dedicated FFT processing is needed in order to recover the spectrum with high resolution but limited spectral range. Another way is to extract the optical signal confined in a waveguide using a surface grating and directly obtain the spectrum by means of a relay optics that generates the spectrum on the Fourier plane of the lens, where the detector is placed. Following this second approach, we present a high-resolution compact dispersive spectrometer (δλ =1.5nm at λ=1050nm) based on guided optics technology. The propagating signal is dispersed out of a waveguide thanks to a surface grating that lays along it. Focused Ion Beam technique is used to etch nano-grooves that act as individual scattering centers and constitute the surface grating along the waveguide. The waveguide is realized using X-cut, Ypropagating Lithium Niobate substrate, where the effective index for TE and TM guided modes is different. This results in a strong angular separation of TE and TM diffracted modes, allowing simultaneous detection of spectra for both polarizations. A simple relay optics, with limited optical aberrations, reimages the diffracted signal on the focal plane array, leading to a robust, easy to align instrument.
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G. Martin, F. Thomas, S. Heidmann, M. de Mengin, N. Courjal, G. Ulliac, A. Morand, P. Benech, P. Kern, E. . Le Coarer, "High resolution TE&TM near infrared compact spectrometer based on waveguide grating structures", Proc. SPIE 9516, Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations II, 95160C (1 May 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2178664; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2178664
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