22 June 2015 Endoscopic fringe projection for in-situ inspection of a sheet-bulk metal forming process
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Abstract
Sheet-bulk metal forming is a new production process capable of performing deep-drawing and massive forming steps in a single operation. However, due to the high forming forces of the forming process, continuous process control is required in order to detect wear on the forming tool before production quality is impacted. To be able to measure the geometry of the forming tool in the limited space of forming presses, a new inspection system is being developed within the SFB/TR 73 collaborative research center. In addition to the limited space, the process restricts the amount of time available for inspection. Existing areal optical measurement systems suffer from shadowing when measuring the tool’s inner elements, as they cannot be placed in the limited space next to the tool, while tactile measurement systems cannot meet the time restrictions for measuring the areal geometries. The new inspection system uses the fringe projection optical measurement principle to capture areal geometry data from relevant parts of the forming tool in short time. Highresolution image fibers are used to connect the system’s compact sensor head to a base unit containing both camera and projector of the fringe projection system, which can be positioned outside of the moving parts of the press. To enable short measurement times, a high intensity laser source is used in the projector in combination with a digital micro-mirror device. Gradient index lenses are featured in the sensor head to allow for a very compact design that can be used in the narrow space above the forming tool inside the press. The sensor head is attached to an extended arm, which also guides the image fibers to the base unit. A rotation stage offers the possibility to capture measurements of different functional elements on the circular forming tool by changing the orientation of the sensor head next to the forming tool. During operation of the press, the arm can be travelled out of the moving parts of the forming press. To further reduce the measurement times of the fringe projection system, the inverse fringe projection principle has been adapted to the system to detect geometry deviations in a single camera image. Challenges arise from vibrations of both the forming machine and the positioning stages, which are transferred via the extended arm to the sensor head. Vibrations interfere with the analysis algorithms of both encoded and inverse fringe projection and thus impair measurement accuracy. To evaluate the impact of vibrations on the endoscopic system, results of measurements of simple geometries under the influence of vibrations are discussed. The effect of vibrations is imitated by displacing the measurement specimen during the measurement with a linear positioning stage. The concept of the new inspection system is presented within the scope of the TR 73 demonstrational sheet-bulk metal forming process. Finally, the capabilities of the endoscopic fringe projection system are shown by measurements of gearing structures on a forming tool compared to a CAD-reference.
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Steffen Matthias, Steffen Matthias, Markus Kästner, Markus Kästner, Eduard Reithmeier, Eduard Reithmeier, } "Endoscopic fringe projection for in-situ inspection of a sheet-bulk metal forming process", Proc. SPIE 9525, Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection IX, 952513 (22 June 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2184746; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2184746
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