21 June 2015 Horizontal geometrical reaction time model for two-beam nacelle LiDARs
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Abstract
Wind energy is one of the leading sustainable energies. To attract further private and state investment in this technology, a broad scaled drop of the cost of energy has to be enforced. There is a trend towards using Laser Doppler Velocimetry LiDAR systems for enhancing power output and minimizing downtimes, fatigue and extreme forces. Since most used LiDARs are horizontally setup on a nacelle and work with two beams, it is important to understand the geometrical configuration which is crucial to estimate reaction times for the actuators to compensate wind gusts. In the beginning of this article, the basic operating modes of wind turbines are explained and the literature on wind behavior is analyzed to derive specific wind speed and wind angle conditions in relation to the yaw angle of the hub. A short introduction to the requirements for the reconstruction of the wind vector length and wind angle leads to the problem of wind shear detection of angled but horizontal homogeneous wind fronts due to the spatial separation of the measuring points. A distance is defined in which the wind shear of such homogeneous wind fronts is not present which is used as a base to estimate further distance calculations. The reaction time of the controller and the actuators are having a negative effect on the effective overall reaction time for wind regulation as well. In the end, exemplary calculations estimate benefits and disadvantages of system parameters for wind gust regulating LiDARs for a wind turbine of typical size. An outlook shows possible future improvements concerning the vertical wind behavior.
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Thorsten Beuth, Thorsten Beuth, Maik Fox, Maik Fox, Wilhelm Stork, Wilhelm Stork, } "Horizontal geometrical reaction time model for two-beam nacelle LiDARs", Proc. SPIE 9526, Modeling Aspects in Optical Metrology V, 95260G (21 June 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2181960; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2181960
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