Resin composites are widely used as restorative materials due to their excellent aesthetical and mechanical properties. Posterior teeth are constantly submitted to occlusal stress and upon restoration require more resistant resins. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the wear suffered over time by restorations in resin composite in posterior teeth, by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). 30 molars had occlusal cavities prepared and were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and restored with resin composite: G1: Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE), G2: Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent); G3: Filtek P60 (3M/ESPE). Specimens were subjected to initial analysis by OCT (OCP930SR, Thorlabs, axial resolution 6.2 μm) and stereoscopic microscope. Specimens were submitted to thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55 °C) and subjected to simulated wear through a machine chewing movements (Wear Machine WM001), projecting four years of use. After mechanical cycles, the specimens were submitted to a second evaluation by the OCT and stereoscopic microscopy. As a result, it was observed that 90% of the restorations of both groups had fractures and/or points of stress concentration, considered niches for early dissemination of new fracture lines. It was also found that G1 and G2 had more points of stress concentration, whereas G3 had a higher incidence of fracture lines already propagated. It was concluded that the G3 showed more brittle behavior at the masticatory wear when compared to G1 and G2.