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15 July 2015 Pulse mode irradiation at Radachlorin PDT shifted cell death to apoptosis in vitro
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved treatment that can exhibit onsite cytotoxic activity toward tumor cells. One of the main factors limiting PDT efficiency is tissue hypoxia derived from photodynamic action. PDT with pulse mode irradiation at the same peak fluence rates as in continuous wave (CW) mode and with appropriate irradiation parameters could be more effective in the potency of 1O2 generation and the cytotoxic effect enhancement by tissue reoxygenation. In this study, we demonstrated theoretically that the main parameter of pulse mode irradiation is the intermittency factor, which makes it possible to maintain the intended 3O2 concentration and to regulate the efficiency of 1O2 generation. We also showed experimentally that photodynamic treatment with pulse mode irradiation has congruent cytotoxicity to CW mode but induces preferable cell apoptosis. We assume that not only is cumulative 1O2 concentration is important in photodynamic cytotoxicity, but so is the temporal distribution of 1O2 generation, which determines the types of cell death.
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Vladimir V. Klimenko, Alexey A. Bogdanov, Nickolay A. Knyazev, and Michael V. Dubina "Pulse mode irradiation at Radachlorin PDT shifted cell death to apoptosis in vitro", Proc. SPIE 9542, Medical Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions VII, 95421D (15 July 2015);

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