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10 September 2015 On the nature of "stuff" and the hierarchy of forces
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From super clusters of galaxies down to the quarks in the proton, at all length scales the structure of matter is the result of a balance of forces. In this paper it is argued that with decreasing size there must necessarily be an increase of the fraction of kinetic and binding energy with respect to the total energy. Smaller sizes require stronger forces which represent more of the energy available. The smallest possible size of granularity is found to be where the internal kinetic energy and total energy become comparable, which occurs at the size of the proton. We infer that the proton is the smallest stable particle, being a light speed circulation of energy.
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Martin B. van der Mark "On the nature of "stuff" and the hierarchy of forces", Proc. SPIE 9570, The Nature of Light: What are Photons? VI, 95701G (10 September 2015);


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