Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer (ML) technology has been intensively applied in many scientific and technological fields such as solar physics and photolithography. More recently, the advent of free electron lasers (FEL) emitting bright sub-ps pulses with very high quality in term of intensity stability, coherence and temporal shape has encouraged the usage of multilayer coatings also in the transport and manipulation of FEL radiation. In fact, conventional single layers coated mirrors provide negligible reflectance in the EUV spectral range whereas ML mirrors can reach high efficiency at normal incidence without affecting the pulses characteristics. Such optical elements have been also exploited at FERMI@ELETTRA FEL where novel multilayer coatings specifically conceived for pump and probe experiment and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy have been designed. The main results are reported.
The upgraded ESRF end station ID16A was equipped with a new Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) nano-focusing setup. The figured KB mirrors were coated with steeply graded W/B4C multilayers to account for the variable angle of reflection along the beam footprint. The multilayers were deposited at the ESRF Multilayer Facility by DC magnetron sputtering in dynamic mode, where the substrates move in front of the sputter cathodes. The present work deals with the design, the fabrication, and the characterization of the coatings. First results obtained during commissioning experiments on ID16A complement the report.
Ultrashort period multilayer X-ray mirrors with the layer thickness down to 1 nm or less represent a technological challenge. Here, the layer thickness becomes comparable to the interface roughness and discontinuous layers producing strong diffuse scattering may appear. The grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a unique nondestructive technique to probe the mirror quality in terms of the statistical interface roughness and its correlation properties. We present the first in-situ laboratory GISAXS experiments of monitoring the multilayer mirror growth in order to better understand and optimize the deposition process. A microfocus X-ray source IμS with focusing Montel optics (Incoatec) and 2D X-ray detector Pilatus 200K (Dectris) were mounted on a custom-designed dual-ion beam sputtering apparatus (Bestec). Two W/B4C mirrors with 15 periods of 1.8 nm and 2.1 nm were prepared as determined from the post-deposition specular X-ray reflectivity measurements. The in-situ GISAXS tracking was done by a fast repeated collection of the GISAXS frames with the integration time of 8 s at the incidence angle of 0.25 degree. Two distinct features along qz at qy= 0, namely Yoneda and Bragg-like (BL) multilayer peaks evolved in the GISAXS pattern. Oscillatory behavior of the latter in terms of intensity and FWHM was observed after the initial stage. Lateral cuts of the diffuse scattering concentration stripes surrounding BL peaks in particular GISAXS frames provided temporal evolution of the correlation and fractal interface parameters. Their potential for tailoring the multilayer properties is discussed.
Within the framework of its researches on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), the “Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics in order to probe dense plasmas produced by Laser facilities. The final goal for those diagnostics is to be used during experiments on the Laser Megajoules french facility (LMJ) at Bordeaux.
We present two types of advanced monochromatic High Resolution X-ray Imaging microscopes (HRXI) who have high spatial resolution capability (3-6 μm) and high efficiency.
The first microscope so-called MERSSIX consists of two toroïdals mirrors mounted into a Wolter type geometry and working at grazing incidence. Non-periodic multilayer (depth graded) mirrors were developed with special coatings designed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance in the 1 - 22 keV energy range. Associated to this Wolter microscope a potential monochromatic third mirror coated with a multilayer stack can be used for monochromatic application in that range.
The second microscope is composed of a transmission gold Fresnel Phase Zone Plate (FPZP) and a narrow bandwidth multilayer mirror. We present an experimental study with X-ray plasma-source and a complete characterization of the X-ray optics on the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II.
Potentialities (a few μspatial resolution monochromatic images) and complementarity of these two monochromatic HRXI are discussed. The design of the MLs for each microscope is detailed.
For future photolithography processes, the wavelength of 6 nm may offer improved imaging specs. The perspective of this technology however, will depend critically on the performance of multilayer reflective mirrors, which are likely to be based on La/B. One of the issues is formation of LaxBy compounds at the interfaces, which decreases the optical contrast and reduce the reflectivity. To prevent such chemical interaction, passivation of La by nitrogen has been investigated. We successfully synthesized LaN layers that resulted in a new world record reflectivity of 64% at 6.6 nm at near normal incidence. This reduces the gap to the target of 70%, desired for a next generation lithography.
Efficient focusing optics are a key ingredient for high-resolution (few nanometer) hard x-ray imaging. In recent years, a combined optical scheme using prefocusing to match the coherent fraction of the synchrotron’s x-ray beam to a high-resolution multilayer zone plate (MZP) has been presented. This scheme allows sub-5 nm focusing of hard x-rays in two dimensions. Nevertheless, the first lenses prepared by pulsed laser deposition of alternating WW and Si layers were limited by a low deposition rate of W and the formation of lots of Si-droplets during film growth. Thus, the material combination has been changed to Ta2O5 and ZrO2, allowing a much faster and more accurate layer growth. Here we present latest developments achieved in both design and fabrication of high-resolution MMZPs: A MZP with a lens diameters of about 15 micrometers, sharp layer interfaces, 5 nm outermost zone widths and a focal length of 0.5 mm. Too increase the focusing efficiency even more, a tilted geometry using a pulled glass fibre was successfully implemented.
It is possible to achieve soft X-ray nanofocusing with a high efficiency and no chromatic aberration by using an ultraprecise ellipsoidal mirror. Surface figure metrology is key in the improvement of surface figure accuracy. In this study, we propose a ptychographic phase retrieval method using a visible light laser to measure the surface figure error profile of an ellipsoidal mirror. We introduce a simple experimental system for ptychographic phase retrieval and demonstrate the basic performance of the proposed system. Obtainable wavefront information provides both the figure error and the alignment of the ellipsoidal mirror that yield the best focusing. This developed method is required for offline adjustments when an ellipsoidal mirror is installed in the beamline of synchrotron radiation or X-ray free-electron laser light sources.
A new spectrometer design that will result in a highly efficient, easy to handle, low-cost, high-resolution spectroscopy system with excellent background suppression is being developed for the NSLS-II Inner-Shell Spectroscopy beamline. This system utilizes non-diffractive optics comprised of fused and directed glass capillary tubes that will be used to collect and pre-collimate fluorescence photons. There are several advantages enabled by this design; a large energy range is accessible without modifying the s-stem, a large collection angle is achieved per detection unit: 4-5% of the full solid angle, easy integration in complex and harsh environments is enabled due to the use of a pre-collimation system as a secondary source for the spectrometer, and background from a complex sample environment can be easily and efficiently suppressed.
The polycapillary X-ray focusing optics segment of this application has been under development. This includes improvement in manufacturing methods of polycapillary structure for x-ray optics, forming the polycapillary structure to produce X-ray optics to achieve the required solid angle collection and transmission efficiency, and measurement of X-ray focusing properties of the optics using an X-ray source. Two promising advances are large open area ratios of 80% or more, and the possibility of adding coatings in the capillaries using Atomic Layer Deposition techniques to improve reflection efficiency.
XRF imaging spectrometry is a powerful tool for materials characterization. A high spatial resolution is often required, in order to appreciate very tiny details of the studied object. With respect to simple pinholes, polycapillary optics allows much more intense fluxes to be achieved. This is fundamental to detect elements in trace and to strongly reduce the global acquisition time that is actually among the main reasons, in addition to radioprotection issues, affecting the competitiveness of XRF imaging with respect to other faster imaging techniques such as multispectral imaging. Unlike other well-known X-ray optics, principally employed for high brilliant radiation source such as synchrotron facilities, polyCO can be efficiently coupled also with conventional X-ray tubes. All these aspects make them the most suitable choice to realize portable, safe and high performing μXRF spectrometers.
In this work preliminary results achieved with a novel 2D and 3D XRF facility, called Rainbow X-Ray (RXR), are reported, with particular attention to the spatial resolution achieved. RXR is based on the confocal arrangement of three polycapillary lenses, one focusing the primary beam and the other two capturing the fluorescence signal. The detection system is split in two couples of lens-detector in order to cover a wider energy range. The entire device is a laboratory user-friendly facility and, though it allows measurements on medium-size objects, its dimensions do not preclude it to be transported for in situ analysis on request, thanks also to a properly shielded cabinet.
Some X-ray instruments require the utilization of large-area windows to provide vacuum barriers. The necessary attributes of the window material include transparency to X-rays, low scattering, and possession of suitable mechanical properties for reliable long-term performance. Kapton is one such material except that it is a polymer and a large window made from Kapton with a pressure differential of one atmosphere across it can undergo substantial deformation at room temperature. In this paper, we report on the mechanical testing of Kapton samples including creep measurements, and comparison with published data. We use of these data together with analytical / numerical models to predict the changes in the profile of Kapton vacuum windows over time, and show good agreement with experimental measurements.
An angular vibration effect of the reflection optics was examined for source size, source divergence, beam size at the sample position, and position of beam waist of the synchrotron radiation. The phase space diagram was formulated involving the vibration effect. For a typical arrangement of the SPring-8 beamline assuming the primary reflection optics at 40 m from the light source, the vertical source size increase is significant compared with the other quantities. Suppression of the angular vibration less than 0.07 μrad (rms), for example, is required to maintain the 5-μm beam with less than 10% increase due to the vibration.
Mirrors are key devices for creating various systems in optics. Focusing X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light requires mirror surfaces with an extremely high accuracy. The figure of an ellipsoidal mirror is obtained by rotating an elliptical profile, and using such a mirror, soft X-ray and EUV light can be focused to dimensions on the order of nanometers without chromatic aberration. Although the theoretical performance of ellipsoidal mirrors is extremely high, the fabrication of an ideal ellipsoidal mirror remains problematic. Based on this background, we have been working to develop a fabrication system for ellipsoidal mirrors. In this proceeding, we briefly introduce the fabrication process and the soft X-ray focusing performance of the ellipsoidal mirror fabricated using the proposed process.