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18 September 2015 High-resolution high-efficiency multilayer Fresnel zone plates for soft and hard x-rays
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Abstract
X-ray microscopy enables high spatial resolutions, high penetration depths and characterization of a broad range of materials. Calculations show that nanometer range resolution is achievable in the hard X-ray regime by using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) if certain conditions are satisfied. However, this requires, among other things, aspect ratios of several thousands. The multilayer (ML) type FZPs, having virtually unlimited aspect ratios, are strong candidates to achieve single nanometer resolutions. Our research is focused on the fabrication of ML-FZPs which encompasses deposition of multilayers over a glass fiber via the atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is subsequently sliced in the optimum thickness for the X-ray energy by a focused ion beam (FIB). We recently achieved aberration free imaging by resolving 21 nm features with an efficiency of up to 12.5 %, the highest imaging resolution achieved by an ML-FZP. We also showed efficient focusing of 7.9 keV X-rays down to 30 nm focal spot size (FWHM). For resolutions below ~10 nm, efficiencies would decrease significantly due to wave coupling effects. To compensate this effect high efficiency, low stress materials have to be researched, as lower intrinsic stresses will allow fabrication of larger FZPs with higher number of zones, leading to high light intensity at the focus. As a first step we fabricated an ML-FZP with a diameter of 62 μm, an outermost zone width of 12 nm and 452 active zones. Further strategies for fabrication of high resolution high efficiency multilayer FZPs will also be discussed.
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Umut Tunca Sanli, Kahraman Keskinbora, Keith Gregorczyk, Jonas Leister, Nicolas Teeny, Corinne Grévent, Mato Knez, and Gisela Schütz "High-resolution high-efficiency multilayer Fresnel zone plates for soft and hard x-rays", Proc. SPIE 9592, X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods II, 95920F (18 September 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2187795; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2187795
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