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21 September 2015 Search for the algorithm of genes distribution during the process of microbial evolution
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Abstract
Previous two and three dimensional graph analysis of eco-physiological data of Archaea demonstrated specific geometry for distribution of major Prokaryotic groups in a hyperboloid function. The function of a two-sheet hyperboloid covered all known biological groups, and therefore, could be applied for the entire evolution of life on Earth. The vector of evolution was indicated from the point of hyper temperature, extreme acidity and low salinity to the point of low temperature and increased alkalinity and salinity. According to this vector, the following groups were chosen for the gene screening analysis. In the vector “High-Temperature → Low-Temperature” within extreme acidic pH (0-3), it is: 1) the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota – order Sulfolobales, 2) moderately thermophilic Euryarchaeota - Class Thermoplasmata, and 3) mesophilic acidophiles- genus Thiobacillus and others. In the vector “Low pH → High pH” the following groups were selected in three temperature ranges: a) Hyperthermophilic Archaea and Eubacteria, b) moderately thermophilic – representatives of the genera Anaerobacter and Anoxybacillus, and c) mesophilic haloalkaliphiles (Eubacteria and Archaea). The genes associated with acidophily (H+ pump), chemolitho-autotrophy (proteins of biochemichal cycles), polymerases, and histones were proposed for the first vector, and for the second vector the genes associated with halo-alkaliphily (Na+ pumps), enzymes of organotrophic metabolisms (sugar- and proteolytics), and others were indicated for the screening. Here, an introduction to the phylogenetic constant (ρη) is presented and discussed. This universal characteristic is calculated for two principally different life forms –Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; Existence of the second type of living forms is impossible without the first one. The number of chromosomes in Prokaryotic organisms is limited to one (with very rare exceptions, to two), while in Eukaryotic organisms this number is larger. Currently, accumulation of data for genome sequences is in progress: about 3,500 draft sequences of genomes are available (of the total 12,000 species Bacteria and Archaea). The possibility of confirmation of the previously proposed mathematical model with an approach for genes screening in determined key groups of microorganisms in genomes databases is outlined and discussed in this article.
© (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Elena V. Pikuta "Search for the algorithm of genes distribution during the process of microbial evolution", Proc. SPIE 9606, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XVII, 96060Y (21 September 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2191197
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