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14 September 2015 Optical gratings and grisms: developments on straylight and polarization sensitivity improved microstructures
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Abstract
Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission, reflection gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular distribution. Focusing on the straylight characteristic a measurement of the actual straylight level, preferably with extremely high precision, was performed and will be discussed in this paper. Beside of the results of straylight measurement the actual results on improving efficiency for transmission and reflection gratings will be discussed on theoretical simulations compared to measured data over the entire wavelength range.
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Torsten Diehl, Peter Triebel, Tobias Moeller, Alexandre Gatto, Alexander Pesch, Lars H. Erdmann, Matthias Burkhardt, and Alexander Kalies "Optical gratings and grisms: developments on straylight and polarization sensitivity improved microstructures", Proc. SPIE 9611, Imaging Spectrometry XX, 96110W (14 September 2015); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2188081
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