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12 October 2015 Selenographic coordinate mapping of lunar observations by GOES imager
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Radiometric stability of the lunar surface, its lack of atmosphere and smooth reflectance spectrum makes the moon an ideal target for calibrating satellite-based multi-band imagers. Lunar calibration for solar bands has been an important part of trending the radiometric performance of GOES imager. The lunar disk-equivalent irradiance has been often used to trend the on-orbit degradation of the GOES imager and its performance is largely affected by the uncertainties embedded in the lunar irradiance model in characterizing its dependence on lunar phase and libration. On the other hand, the lunar view by GOES imager provides opportunity to perform radiometric calibration of GOES imager using lunar radiances of selected locations on the moon. In order to do so, lunar observations by GOES need to be mapped onto selenographic coordinate, i.e. latitude and longitude in moon-centered coordinate. In this paper, algorithms and procedures are developed to map lunar images observed by GOES onto selenographic coordinate. Progressive shift in east-west scan direction, oversampling factor and distortion of lunar image are corrected to transform it back to be within a circular disk. Controlling region matching is applied to determine rotation angle and three consecutive rotations are performed to map lunar observation onto selenographic coordinate. Lunar observations of GOES-12 are processed and regions of interest (ROIs) are identified. Lunar phase-dependence of lunar measurements at ROIs is analyzed. It is found that lunar measurement depends strongly on Sun-Moon-Satellite geometry and knowledge of BRDF of lunar surface can enable trending of radiometric performance of GOES imager with local lunar radiance.
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Xi Shao, Xiangqian Wu, and Fangfang Yu "Selenographic coordinate mapping of lunar observations by GOES imager", Proc. SPIE 9639, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XIX, 963918 (12 October 2015);

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