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15 October 2015 Estimation and characterization of physical and inorganic chemical indicators of water quality by using SAR images
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Recently, remote sensing is considering one of the most important tools in studies of water scattering and water characterization. Traditional methods for monitoring pollutants depended on optical satellite rather than Radar data. Thus, many of Water Quality Parameters (WQP) from optical imagery are still limited. In this paper, a new approach based on the TerraSAR-X images has been presented which it is used to map the region of interest and to estimate physical and chemical WQPs. This approach based on a Small Perturbation Model (SPM) for the electromagnetic scattering is applied by using the Elfouhaily spectrum. A series of inversions have been included in this model started by finding the reflectivity from backscattering coefficients which are calculated from SAR images. Another inversion has been applied to find dielectric constant from the calculation models of the reflectivity (in HH and VV polarizations). Then, a Stogryn Debye formulation has been used to estimate temperature and salinity of water surface from SAR images. After many derivations we got a new model able to estimate temperature and salinity directly from backscattering coefficients obtained from radar images. Inorganic chemical parameters which are represented by Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) and the Electrical Conductivity (EC) are estimated directly from salinity. A tow dataset of instu data have been used to validate this work. The validation included a comparison between parameters measured in situ and those estimated from Terra SAR-X image.
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Muntadher A. Shareef, Abdelmalek Toumi, and Ali Khenchaf "Estimation and characterization of physical and inorganic chemical indicators of water quality by using SAR images", Proc. SPIE 9642, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XV, 96420U (15 October 2015);

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