20 October 2015 Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements
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Abstract
Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.
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Joel F. Campbell, Joel F. Campbell, Bing Lin, Bing Lin, Amin R. Nehrir, Amin R. Nehrir, F. Wallace Harrison, F. Wallace Harrison, Michael D. Obland, Michael D. Obland, Byron Meadows, Byron Meadows, } "Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements", Proc. SPIE 9645, Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing XI, 964504 (20 October 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2194442; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2194442
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