This paper describes a system concept for persistent (up to 365 days, 24/7), unmanned, local-area surveillance of air and maritime surface and sub-surface objects in the Canadian Arctic. The system concept is based on unmanned, remotely controlled and monitored Arctic Surveillance Systems that could be deployed at one or more maritime chokepoints, at locations in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The Artic Surveillance Systems would be operated over a satellite communication channel from a Southern Control Centre located in the south of Canada. Surveillance information for each detected platform and environmental reports for the local operating area would be compiled semi-automatically, from the integration of data transmitted from multiple above-water and underwater sensors and self-reporting systems, and be disseminated, in near real-time, to defence, security, and public safety clients. Potential sensors and self-reporting systems include radar, radar intercept receiver, underwater acoustic arrays, electro-optical/infrared camera system, Automatic Identification System (AIS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), and a meteorological sensor system. The system concept is comprised of a surveillance concept – which includes environmental and geographic factors, platform types under potential surveillance, end-user information requirements, contributions of individual sensor types to surveillance, and the role of local-area surveillance within the broader context of Arctic Domain Awareness – and a system operating concept. The system operating concept describes the system capabilities and operating modes required to achieve the surveillance concept. Specific consideration is given to the interplay between the automation level, the quality and timeliness of the resulting information productions, the allocation of processing functions between the Control Centre and the Arctic Surveillance System, and transmitted data volumes. The system concept is being used in support of the specification of functional requirements for a concept demonstration system for Arctic surveillance, currently under development by Defence R&D Canada.