14 November 2015 Front Matter: Volume 9653
This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 9653, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, Authors, and Conference Committee listing.

The papers in this volume were part of the technical conference cited on the cover and title page. Papers were selected and subject to review by the editors and conference program committee. Some conference presentations may not be available for publication. Additional papers and presentation recordings may be available online in the SPIE Digital Library at SPIEDigitalLibrary.org.

The papers reflect the work and thoughts of the authors and are published herein as submitted. The publisher is not responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance thereon.

Please use the following format to cite material from these proceedings:

Author(s), “Title of Paper,” in Target and Background Signatures, edited by Karin U. Stein, Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 9653 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2015) Six-digit Article CID Number.

ISSN: 0277-786X

ISSN: 1996-756X (electronic)

ISBN: 9781628418637

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Numbers in the index correspond to the last two digits of the six-digit citation identifier (CID) article numbering system used in Proceedings of SPIE. The first four digits reflect the volume number. Base 36 numbering is employed for the last two digits and indicates the order of articles within the volume. Numbers start with 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 0A, 0B…0Z, followed by 10-1Z, 20-2Z, etc.

Åkerlind, Christina, 03

Andersson, Kent E., 02

Angele, Susanne, 0O

Arya, H., 0M

Baláž, Teodor, 0K

Bartelsen, Jan, 0P

Bartos, B., 0G

Boehler, J., 0J

Bostater, Charles R., 0I

Cathala, Thierry, 07, 08, 09

Culpepper, Joanne B., 0U, 0V

Depraz, Florian, 0N

Devecchi, Bernadetta, 0C

Dunau, Patrick, 0T

El Bekri, Nadia, 0O

Fagerström, Jan, 03

Fitz, Daniel, 0T

Furnell, Alistair, 0V

Gross, W., 0J

Hablani, H. B., 0M

Haelke, Bruno, 0O

Hallberg, Tomas, 03

Havemann, Stephan, 0F

Huber, Samuel, 0R

Hult, Gunnar, 02

Jersblad, Johan, 04

Jobánek, Adam, 0K

Kariis, Hans, 02, 03

Kneubuehler, M., 0J

Larsson, Christer, 04

Latger, Jean, 07, 08, 09

Leblebici, Yusuf, 0N

Le Goff, Alain, 07

Middelmann, W., 0J

Oechslin, R., 0J

Ott, Beat, 0N

Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth, 0O

Popovic, Vladan, 0N

Racek, František, 0K

Ruckhäberle, Martin, 0O

Saur, Günter, 0P

Schilling, H., 0J

Schwarz, Alexander, 06

Schweitzer, Caroline, 0A

Selj, Gorm K., 05, 0S

Shao, Q. T., 0V

Søderblom, M., 05

Sreeja, S., 0M

Stein, Karin U., 0A, 0G, 0T

Stewart, Seán M., 0H

Thelen, Jean-Claude, 0F

van Iersel, Miranda, 0C

Wellig, Peter, 0J, 0N, 0R

Weyermann, J., 0J

Wheaton, Vivienne C., 0U, 0V

Winkelmann, Max, 0D, 0L

Wong, Gerald, 0F

Conference Committee

Symposium Chair

  • David H. Titterton, UK Defence Academy (United Kingdom)

Symposium Co-chair

  • Reinhard Ebert, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung (Germany)

Conference Chairs

  • Karin U. Stein, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung (Germany)

  • Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Netherlands)

Conference Program Committee

  • Hans M. Kariis, FOI-Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)

  • Alexander Schwarz, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung (Germany)

  • Miranda van Iersel, TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Netherlands)

  • Peter Wellig, Armasuisse (Switzerland)

Session Chairs

  • 1 Camouflage Effectiveness

    Hans M. Kariis, FOI-Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)

  • 2 Scene Modelling

    Karin U. Stein, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung (Germany)

  • 3 Signature Phenomenology

    Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen, TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Netherlands)

  • 4 Hyperspectral Signatures

    Alexander Schwarz, Fraunhofer-Institut für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung (Germany)

  • 5 Processing

    Miranda van Iersel, TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Netherlands)

  • 6 Human Observer Performance

    Peter Wellig, Armasuisse (Switzerland)


Sensor technology and signal processing have been covered by various conferences at European SPIE Security and Defense symposiums since 2004. Increases in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution and detectivity have been presented on since then. The broadening of the spectral coverage has also opened the path to unprecedented sensor applications. Targets and background signatures have always been an important component of the work presented, but scientific contributions from this field of research have remained somewhat hidden within presentations at the different conferences.

The topic Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation was formerly covered by a conference series at the 2011 SPIE Defense and Security symposium in Orlando. Since then, a Targets and Backgrounds conference series has ceased to exist. A new conference was set up at the 2015 SPIE Security and Defence Symposium in Toulouse, and it was intended to re-establish a conference on Target and Background Signatures in order to provide a proper forum for the involved research community.

The high number of papers submitted to the 2015 conference indicates that the signature research community really welcomed the revival of a forum to present and discuss target and background signatures. The contributions come from several organizations located in 13 countries from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia.

The conference was divided into six sessions:

  • Camouflage effectiveness

  • Scene modelling

  • Signature phenomenology

  • Hyperspectral signatures

  • Processing

  • Human observer performance

The session on Camouflage Effectiveness made clear that the effectiveness of signature reduction and signature management should be assessed at different levels:

  • Tactics

  • Capabilities

  • System signature

  • Signature features

To help address all these levels, an integrated project approach is recommended— bringing different types of expertise together. This involves those in the industry working alongside researchers and military experts. The awareness of this approach set the tone for the conference.

The session on Scene Modelling showed excellent examples of current possibilities and capabilities in this field. Physical phenomena can be modelled with continuously increasing level of detail. An example of this was given in a presentation on effects of wakes on IR and radar signatures. However, despite the increase of computational power, physically accurate models can be very time consuming to run, and trade-offs have to be made between physical accuracy and computation time needed. This trade-off process will be supported by understanding the level at which the signature effects are being assessed and the level of detail needed.

The sessions on Signature Phenomenology and Hyperspectral Signatures illustrated investigations on a great variety of signature features. Modelling and scene generation builds on these efforts. Some examples given were on work involving (hyper)-spectral measurements and theoretical work on the capabilities of sensors. Papers were presented on the effect of environmental conditions on signatures and their effect on sensor performance.

Finally, the sessions on Processing and Human Observer Performance discussed methods to assess the effect of signature management on detection and tracking of targets at a system level. Several aspects of sensor processing were shown. Bringing in new perspectives on processing from the field of anomaly detection in radiological research, as presented, can be stimulating to the research in electro-optical target detection.

A great variety of methods for assessing human observer performance was shown, which contributes to the understanding of the observation process. This also helps define the level at which signature effects are assessed. For example, the time needed to detect an object in a specific scene does not translate automatically into the effect of survivability on the next level. However, the discussions after the presentations emphasized this.

We would like to thank authors, the program committee, and session chairs for sharing their efforts and expertise to make this a successful, well-attended conference.

We also would like to thank SPIE and their dedicated staff for providing a well-suited framework for the conference.

Karin U. Stein

Ric H. M. A. Schleijpen

© (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
} "Front Matter: Volume 9653", Proc. SPIE 9653, Target and Background Signatures, 965301 (14 November 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2227230; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2227230

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